CASE DECISIONS

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Child Protection / Overprotection False Child Abuse Allegations in Divorce
Child Support Jurisdiction: UCCJA and state jurisdiction
Constitutional / Parental Rights Parental Kidnapping
Custody, Kidnapping, and Moveaways Public Officials
Driver's and Other License Revocations Pro Se / Support Group
Domestic Violence Tort Suits
Evidence: Wiretapping / Tape recording  

Child Protection / Overprotection: Back To Top

  • US v. Gillespie, 9th Circuit U.S.C.A.(1993). Anatomical Dolls fail to satisfy Frye Test for scientific reliability.
    Available in TEXT format.

Child Support: Back To Top

  • Child Support - Conflict of Interest - Overassessment
    Policy Studies, Inc. is the largest [PDF] firm privately collecting child support in America. It is probably also has the most influence [PDF] of any single organization impacting how child support orders are calculated. The "Williams Model", adopted by 31 states, was created by Robert Williams [PDF], President of Policy Studies [PDF].

    It is a direct conflict of interest to have a major for-profit corporation [PDF] that both establishes criteria for child support obligations and then profits from collecting them. Child support tables based on the "Williams Model" assume that the mother has the children 100% of the time and that the father has zero expenditures on behalf of the children. Yet in most cases children are with their fathers about 25% of the time. Despite this fact, states legally presume that the Williams Model amount is the correct presumed amount for the average father who has the children with him about 25% of the time -- and double-assess the support against the father for the time when children are with him. In summary, the child support tables in 31 states are approximately 25% too high -- a highly significant and ligitable assessment error.

    Recently, Robert Williams has admitted in a letter [PDF] to the Ohio Department of Human Services that his tables are fundamentally overblown. He fudges reality by suggesting that "credits" should not be given unless the father has his children with him more than 25% of the time. It is a factual misrepresentation to assess child support based on a deceptive bases, and then to claim that the basis arbitrarily becomes legitimate because a "credit" is somehow not deserved. The entire notion of child support rises from the concept that expenses are incurred when a child is with a parent. To rationalize that these expenses are valid only when the child is with the parent who happens to make profits for Policy Studies reveals the true conflict of interest. Child support tables should reflect the normal custody arrangement as the "presumed amount", and then be adjusted upwards or downwards when varying from the norm.

    Litigation must ban Policy Studies from being involved in the legislative or quantitative process in any way whatsoever, and we must litigate to have the support tables in states which use the Williams model declared invalid.

  • Tindall v. Wayne County Friend of the Court, 98-CV-73896-DT, Eastern District of Michigan, Southern Division; 9/30/99. This is apparently the FIRST federal decision recognizing that fathers have constitutionally protected rights with respect to child support. In this case, the Wayne County Michigan Friend of the Court was ordered to stop issuing arrest warrants and conducting property seizures in the absence of court orders and proper judicial review. This case is a very important case. Includes preface by the law firm that won the case. In PDF format [2.03 MB]
  • Project for the Improvement of Child Support Litigation Technology. Roger F. Gay's project to debunk the privatized welfare state and to reverse the trend of disguising mother-support as child support. Link to site
  • County of Santa Clara v. Perry v. Hernandez. [1998.CA.16052 (http://www.versuslaw.com), Ca Sup. Ct. S062931, S061671, June 25, 1998]. Support orders can be made retroactive only to the filing date of the notice of motion or order to show cause for support.
    Available in HTML format.
  • Holmberg v. Holmberg, Kallis-Fuller v. Fuller, and Carlson v. Carlson. Minnesota Court of Appeals #C7-97-926, C8-97-1132, C7-97-1512, C8-98-33; [June 11, 1998]. 1. The administrative child support process governed by Minn. Stat. 518.5511 (1996) is unconstitutional because it violates the separation of powers required by Minn. Const. art. III, 1. 2.In determining whether a lien on a homestead created by an ambiguous provision in a dissolution judgment may be modified, the district court must determine whether the lien is part of the division of property or in the nature of child support. A lien in the nature of child support may be modified if changed circumstances render it unreasonable and unfair. 3.A disabled child support obligor is entitled to a credit for social security disability benefits paid on behalf of a child for whom the obligor has a duty of support. Haynes v. Haynes, 343 N.W.2d 679 (Minn. App. 1984), and other contrary cases are overruled.
    Available in HTML, Word 6.0 and PDF format.
  • United States of America v. Allan A. Mussari. [11996.C09.677 (http://www.versuslaw.com)]. District Court's decision invalidating federal criminal nonsupport statutes of the Child Support and Recovery Act of 1992, 18 U.S.C. S 228 (the CSRA, was reversed by the 9th District Arizona court. This case should be studied closely for future litigation.
    Available in HTML format.
  • SMITH v. SMITH, No. 71-3146, CA 16098, SC 27080, Supreme Court of Oregon, March 24, 1981. Requires parenting time credits, considers in detail flaws in tabular support orders.
    Available in PDF format.
  • Moss v. Moss [LLR No. 9609060.CA, U.S.C.A. Division 2, 9/25/96]. Historic California case defining criminal nonsupport contempt standard, essentially decriminalizing poverty of fathers who are overassessed on child support, and denying forced labor at state's order. "We follow the law of this state and hold that petitioner cannot be compelled to work by the threat of imprisonment or other restriction on his liberty. The order of contempt is annulled."
    Available in HTML and TEXT format.
  • Blessing, Director, Arizona Department Of Economic Security v. Freestone et al. [1997, US SupCt, 95-1441]. Child Support Enforcement is not a federal right that can be used to force states to substantially comply with Title IV-D.
    Available in HTML format.
  • County of Lake v. Gerald Anthony Antoni . Appeal of case decision where the court properly took into account father's debt service for current liabilities upheld.
    Available in HTML format.
  • Coons vs. Wilder, 416 N.E. 2d 785 (Ill, 1981). A father whose income decreased while voluntarily attending law school is entitled to a decrease in support payments - law school will increase his income.
    Available in TEXT format.
  • Bonita Kline Curtis v. Philip H. Kline, [1995.PA.1585 (http://www.versuslaw.com)] . Pennsylvania state law requiring divorced parents to provide college education is held unconstitutional by the Pennsylvania Supreme Court.
    Available in HTML format.
  • David v. Matikke, 01A01 9702 CV 00090, TN C.A. Western District. Tennessee Court of Appeals reversed support order of the lower court, where lower court ordered support for child of the marriage, without deducting income spent to meet standing support order to younger child born out of wedlock. Lower court had decided that since the child of the marriage was born first, that the support order being paid to younger illegitimate child was irrelevant. This case upholds federal law requiring that each support order be fulfilled according to date of entry, with subsequent support orders recognizing expenses of prior orders.
    Available in HTML format.
  • In re Marriage of Donald and Lynnette Carlsen [96 C.D.O.S. 7737]. Increase in child support garnered by use of unsupported "DissoMaster" computer printout claiming hardship income deduction for wife, is reversed.
    Available in HTML format.
  • In Re Marriage of Damico, [CA S033148-OP-5/9/94] [1994.CA.247 (http://www.versuslaw.com)]. Estoppel defense to support collections where mother kidnaps children, conceals them from father, and later attempts to collect support for the period of concealment.
    Available in HTML format.
  • Helvering, Commissioner of Internal Revenue, v. Horst, [1940.SCT.1152, http://www.versuslaw.com, 311 U.S. 112, 61 S. Ct. 144, 85 L. Ed. 75]. The power to dispose of income is the equivalent of ownership of it. The exercise of that power to procure the payment of income to another is the enjoyment, and hence the realization, of the income by him who exercises it.
    Available in HTML format.
  • Hicks v. Feiock [1988.SCT.1981, 485 U.S. 624, 108 S. Ct. 1423, 99 L. Ed. 2d 721, 56 U.S.L.W. 4347] In child support civil and criminal contempt cases, this U.S. Supreme court determines the standards of proof in prosecution and defense. Civil contempt imprisonment is upheld if the sentence vacates upon compliance with the order, but is held to be criminal in nature if the punishment is not expunged upon satisfaction of the order, or is for fixed time period without waiver upon compliance. "Ability to pay" is not a factor in civil contempt, but is a factor in criminal contempt, where state has the burden of proving ability to pay.
    Available in HTML format.
  • Holmes v. Holmes (NY, March 6, 1997). Fathers support order must be reduced to match the amount of time he spends with the child.
    Available in HTML format.
  • Glenda Jackson v. William R. Rapps [1991.08.1661, 947 F.2d 332, {Versuslaw}. In a class-action suit, the Director of Missouri Division of Child Support Enforcement and his assistant are held liable for damages where full amounts of AFDC paid out were collected from noncustodial parents in intentional ignorance of federal code requiring use of a table to calculate the amount to be collected. Note: Original case was a summary judgement in favor of litigants.
    Available in HTML format.
  • Minx v. Missouri Department of Social Services [1997.MO.170 (http://www.versuslaw.com)], 8th Circuit Court, March 4, 1997. Director of Support Enforcement must submit all administrative tribunal decisions to the court of jurisdiction within the state for approval by the court, before decision can become effective and action taken. All motions and pleadings filed in an administrative support action, by the state, must be signed by an attorney.
    Available in HTML format.
  • P.O.P.S. v. GARDNER, 998 F.2d 764 (9th Cir. 1993) This interesting piece of Washington State fathers rights litigation failed, but probably only because the judges had political reasons for ruling against the plaintiffs. It should be revisited. P.O.P.S contested the constitutionality of the support tables on the grounds that the Supreme Court had not revealed the numeric bases on which the presumed amounts are framed. Where there is no numeric basis for questioning the tables, they are not rebuttable, where the basis for rebuttal is invisible.
    Available in HTML format.

Constitutional / Discrimination: Back To Top

  • The Constitutional Right to Be A Parent, compiled by Stuart A. Miller, American Fathers Coalition.
    Available in PDF, Wordperfect 5, and Word 6 formats.

  • Supra extracts of citations on license revocations, compiled by David R. Usher, Chair, Missouri ACFC Coalition. Will license revocations for support arrears stand in the high courts? What creative strategies might win cases for fathers?
    Available in PDF and TEXT format.
  • TONI RAE GUARD, Individual v. JOHN JACKSON and CINDY J, WA SupCt, 1997 {cite as 1997.WA.1208 (http://www.versuslaw.com)]. - Noncustodial parent may sue for damages in wrongful death of illegitimate child. State law barring such suit where father had never supported the child overturned. br> Available in HTML format.
  • In the Matter of the Welfare of: J.G.W. and J.L.W., 433 N.W.2d 885; 1989 (Minn.). Parent's fifth amendment privilege against compelled self-incrimination protects him from being ordered by court to admit sexual abuse as pre-requisite to visiting his children, but the privilege does not protect him from the risk of being denied visitation for any failure in treatment resulting from his failure to admit guilt
    Available in TEXT format.
  • In Re the Marriage of Chastain (MoSupCt # 78611, October, 1996). Separation of powers requires court approval of all administrative actions in child support. Legislature may not establish short time period, premitting court approval, should the court not approve an administrative action within that time period.
    Available in HTML format.
  • P.O.P.S. v. GARDNER, 998 F.2d 764 (9th Cir. 1993) This interesting piece of Washington State fathers rights litigation failed, but probably only because the judges had political reasons for ruling against the plaintiffs. It should be revisited. P.O.P.S contested the constitutionality of the support tables on the grounds that the Supreme Court had not revealed the numeric bases on which the presumed amounts are framed. Where there is no numeric basis for questioning the tables, they are not rebuttable, where the basis for rebuttal is invisible.
    Available in HTML format.
  • Santosky v. Kramer, 455 US 745 (1982). Parenting is a fundamental Constitutional Right.
    Available in TEXT format.
  • Yick Wo v. Hopkins, 118 US 356 (May, 1886). A law that is fair on its face but unfairly enforced is unconstitutional.
    Available in TEXT format.

Constitutional / Parental Rights: Back To Top

  • European Commission on Human Rights: ELSHOLZ v. GERMANY [13 July 2000]. The European Commission on Human Rights recognized Parental Alienation and violations of a fathers parental rights, and awarded him fees and damages.
    Available in RTF format.

  • U.S. Code 34 CFR 99: Family Educational Rights and Privacy [FERPA][1 July 1997]. This section of U.S. Code spells out your rights as a parent for access to school records.
    Available in PDF and HTML formats.

Custody, Kidnapping, and Moveaways: Back To Top

  • The Constitutional Right to Be A Parent, compiled by Stuart A. Miller, American Fathers Coalition.
    Available in PDF, Wordperfect 5, and Word 6 formats.

  • Justis, Et. Al; Ohio SupCt No. 97-17, April 1, 1998 [1998.OH.89 http://www.versuslaw.com]. Pursuant to UCCJA, PKPA, and the Full Faith and Credit Act, mother permitted to move to another state may be charged with parental kidnapping if she fails to return the child to Ohio for court ordered visitation with noncustodial father, particularly where mother falsely charged father with child sexual abuse, and may have abused the child herself.
    Available in HTML format.
  • Burgess v. Burgess, The infamous decision permitting a joint custodial mother to move out of state.
    Available in TEXT format.
  • Franz, et. al. 707 F2d 582, 1993. Wisconsin protective laws may not be used to hide a child.
    Available in TEXT format.

Domestic Violence: Back To Top

  • Eagle Forum Amicus Curiae in U.S. v. Morrison, Et. Al.; Brzonkala v. Morrison [U.S.C.A. 4d, 2000] Eagle Forum's Amicus in Brzonkala contains language adopted in the decision of the U.S. Court of Appeals, 4th District, which ruled that the Rape tort provisions of the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) were unconstitutional. We see that the Commerce Clause, which has long been abused in pretending that domestic violence is an issue of commerce (right alongside truck rates), is no longer to be abused by N.O.W. The same tenets of this Amicus may also apply to other parts of VAWA (see U.S. v. Morrison).
    Available in PDF [4.0mb] format.

  • United States v. Morrison, No. 99-5 (U.S. 05/15/2000), SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES Nos. 99-5 and 99-29, [2000.SCT.0042099 ], May 15, 2000 Held: Section 13981 cannot be sustained under the Commerce Clause or 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment. Pp. 7-28. [18](a) The Commerce Clause does not provide Congress with authority to enact 13981's federal civil remedy. A congressional enactment will be invalidated only upon a plain showing that Congress has exceeded its constitutional bounds. See United States v. Lopez, 514 U. S. 549, 568, 577-578. Petitioners assert that 13981 can be sustained under Congress' commerce power as a regulation of activity that substantially affects interstate commerce. Available in html format.

Driver's License Revocations and Related Cases: Back To Top

  • James R. Anderson v. Douglas County [1993.C08.786 (http://www.versuslaw.com)] Denial of zoning license in competitive land use situation does not deny substantive due process rights of litigants. Courts are not the venue for zoning decisionmaking in every situation.
    Available in HTML format.

  • Barsky v. Board of Regents [Versuslaw] At the height of the McCarthy era, the license of a New York doctor was taken away because of his political views. A stunning dissent is in the footnotes, by Justice Douglas. This case is proof that even the U.S. Supreme Court is fallible in the face of politics.
    Available in HTML format.
  • Bell v. Burson, A key case behind license revocation suits.
    Available in HTML format.
  • Supra extracts of citations on license revocations. Will license revocations for support arrears stand in the high courts? What legal strategies might win cases for fathers?
    Available in PDF and TEXT format.
  • City of Spokane v. Julie Anne Port [716 P.2d 945, 43 Wash. App. 273] [1986.WA.116 (http://www.versuslaw.com)] Interest of public safety overrides right to travel when license holder operates vehicle in unsafe manner.
    Available in HTML format
  • Fitch v. Belshaw [Oregon, 581 F. Supp. 273] Minimal procedural due process requirements with respect to license revocations.
    Available in HTML format
  • In the Matter of Smiley [330 N.E.2d 53, 36 N.Y.2d 433] [1975.NY.1034 (http://www.versuslaw.com)] Appointed counsel required for indigent litigants in matrimonial litigation, when husband cannot pay wife's costs. Court notes the serious effect of license revocations on indigents.
    Available in HTML format.
  • Luk v. Commonwealth of Massachussetts. [1995.MA.439 (http://www.versuslaw.com)] In an alchohol-related revocation, revocations of licenses for failure to pay support are cited, however are not ruled upon.
    Available in HTML format.
  • Lundborg v. Director of the Department of Professional and Vocational Standards [64 Cal. Rptr. 650, 257 Cal. App. 2d 141] [1967.CA.1353 (http://www.versuslaw.com)] Revocation of professional license for unethical professional activity requires full hearing.
    Available in HTML format.
  • Miller v. Carter, [547 F.2d 1314], [1977.C07.2 (http://www.versuslaw.com)] A Chicago ordinance which permanently bars persons convicted of certain offenses from obtaining a public chauffeur's license violates the due process and equal protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment.
    Available in HTML format.
  • Perez v. Campbell, [No. 5175, 1971.SCT.105 (http://www.versuslaw.com)] Arizona Motor Vehicle license revocation scheme held invalid. Federal bankruptcy codes discharge debt arising from vehicle accidents, preventing state law from denying driver's licenses due to failure to pay the debt.
    Available in HTML format.
  • Piercy v. Heyison, [565 F.2d 854] [1977.C03.233 (http://www.versuslaw.com)] License revocation is unconstitutional when applied without a hearing to coerce payments of cognovit note judgments.
    Available in HTML format.
  • The State of Washington v. Richard R. Scheffel et al. [1973.WA.318 (http://www.versuslaw.com] License revocation for habitual driving offenses involving alcohol do not violate right to travel.
    Available in HTML format.
  • Thompson, et. al. v. James Ellenbecker, 935 E Supp. 1037; 1993 U.S. Dist. [S.D. 1995] License revocation for nonsupport (upheld) . In the only case we have encountered so far over revocation for support arrears, the appellants only litigated a weak case for procedural process violations over forced signature. The District Court (in general discussion) unintentionally admits in the ruling that license revocation hinders one's ability to "get around", possibly laying foundation for "heightened scrutiny" litigation over right to travel and work.
    Available in HTML format.
  • Waterman Steamship v. Marcus J. Casbon [417 F.2d 1040] [1969.C05.1275 (http://www.versuslaw.com] Parties who elect litigation of constitutional issues over state statute within State courts are bound by the decision.
    Available in HTML format.

Evidence: Wiretapping / tape recording: Back To Top

  • Rice v. Rice, U.S.C.A. 1991.CO8.1790, 1991; 951 F.2d 942.8th district court ruling decided that a person's tape recordings of one's own telephone conversations with others is not a wiretap under federal and Missouri wiretap provisions. However, the taping of telephonic conversations in which one is not a 'party to the conversation' is a wiretap.
    Available in HTML format.

  • Sullivan v. Gray, 324 N.W.2d 58, 117 Mich. App. 476 (1982), 58 324 N.W.2d 58, 117 Mich. 476. Michigan case where there is an exception and sustains the admissibility of evidence by tape recorded telephone conversations where the other party is not aware of the recording.
    Available in Word 6 and PDF format.
  • U.S. v. Murdock. 1995 FED App. 0258P, No. 94-1984 (6th Cir). What makes this case interesting is the analysis contained in the "dicta" and appears to present an issue that should be explored of the exception for a parent in order to protect a child.
    Available in Word 6 and PDF format.

False Child Abuse Allegations in Divorce Proceedings: Back To Top

  • Distinguishing Between True And False Allegations Of Child Sexual Abuse In Divorce Cases: Responding To Criminal Charges. The vast majority of child abuse allegations in divorce and custody proceedings are untrue (96% - Underwager). This 147-page document, prepared by noted attorney Charles Bridges of St. Louis, describes in detail the legal principles, citations, and methodology for revealing false allegations and defending you. Transcripts from a winning case are discussed in detail. This document is a must for any trial attorney who is inexperienced in handling this style of case. Those who live in outlying areas, where it is impossible to find an attorney who knows how to handle this kind of case, should give this to your attorney right away so he can do his homework!
    Available in PDF (336K), Wordperfect 6 (307K), and Word 6 (347K) formats.

  • Mary D., Petitioner v. HONORABLE CLARENCE WATT JUDGE OF THE CIRCUIT COURT OF PUTNAM COUNTY AND GEORGE D., RESPONDENTS, [190 W. Va. 34, ; 438 S.E. 2nd 521; 1992 W. Va. LEXIS 76]. In a candid dissenting opinion, Supreme Court Justice Workman wrote: "We now have a system in which a female parent need only scream child abuse in a loud voice to keep the male parent from seeing a child. Indeed, sexual abuse these days seems to arouse all the hysteria that was associated with witchcraft in yesteryear. In fact, it has even spawned a witch-huntingesque cottage industry, to-wit badly trained, ideological rape trauma experts, rape counselors, bachelor level pseudo-psychologists, social activists, and other assorted species of Jacklegs. I am a firm believer that the best interests of the child are paramount, but that does not mean never allowing a father to see his children when the evidence preponderates on his behalf even though, like an accused witch, he cannot clear himself beyond any shadow of a doubt. Continuous yelling and screaming of an accusation does not make that accusation any more true."
    Available in HTML format.

Jurisdiction: UCCJA with regard to state jurisdiction: Back To Top

  • Orchard v. Orchard, [No. 95-P-2192, Massachussets Court of Appeals, Nov. 12, 1997].
    Available in HTML format.

Parental Kidnapping: Back To Top

  • In Re Marriage of Damico, [CA S033148-OP-5/9/94] [1994.CA.247 (http://www.versuslaw.com)]. Estoppel defense to support collections where mother kidnaps children, conceals them from father, and later attempts to collect support for the period of concealment.
    Available in HTML format.

Public Officials: Back To Top

  • Supra public corruption cases involving public officials (cites only),
    Available in HTML format.

Pro Se / Support Group: Back To Top

  • The Constitutional Right to Be A Parent, compiled by Stuart A. Miller, American Fathers Coalition.
    Available in PDF, Wordperfect 5, and Word 6 formats.

  • Argersinger v. Hamlin [1972.SCT.107 (http://www.versuslaw.com)] . Indigents must have appointed counsel even in cases involving minor criminal offenses.
    Available in HTML format.
  • Forsythe v. Family Court Commissioner of Dane County [1986.WI.157 (http://www.versuslaw.com)] [25 Wis. 2d 572, 373 N.W.2d 85 (Ct. App. 1985)]. Pro se litigant has absolute right to tape record trial proceedings.
    Available in HTML format.
  • Haines v. Kerner 1972.SCT.7 (http://www.versuslaw.com). Pro se litigant shall not be held to same standards of expertise as licensed attorney, and has right to off proof of claim.
    Available in HTML format.
  • Jenkins v. McKeithen, C.C.T. No. 548, 1969.SCT.96 (http://www.versuslaw.com] .
    Available in HTML format.
  • Johnson v. Avery, [1969.SCT.19 (http://www.versuslaw.com)] .
    Available in HTML format.
  • Puckett v. Cox, 456 F.2d 233, 1972 1972.C06.86 (http://www.versuslaw.com) .
    Available in HTML format.
  • NAACP v. Button. Members of groups who are competent non-lawyers can assist other members of the group achieve the goals of the group in court without being charged with "unauthorized practice of law."
    Available in HTML format.

Tort Suits: Back To Top

  • ANKENBRANDT v. RICHARDS, 504 U.S. 689 (1992), 504 U.S. 689; SupCt. No. 91-367 [June 15, 1992]. Ankenbrandt specifically deals with the standing for tort claims in Federal Jurisdiction in Family Court matters traditionally thought to be a domestic relations exception to Federal Jurisdicition. Held: 1. A domestic relations exception to federal diversity jurisdiction exists as a matter of statutory construction. Pp. 3-11. 2. The domestic relations exception does not permit a district court to refuse to exercise diversity jurisdiction over a tort action for damages. The exception, as articulated by this Court since Barber, encompasses only cases involving the issuance of a divorce, alimony, or child custody decree. As so limited, the exception's validity must be reaffirmed, given the long passage of time without any expression of congressional dissatisfaction and sound policy considerations of judicial economy and expertise. Because this lawsuit in no way seeks a divorce, alimony, or child custody decree, the Court of Appeals erred by affirming the District Court's invocation of the domestic relations exception. Federal subject matter jurisdiction pursuant to 1332 is proper in this case. Pp. 701-704.This case has not been shepardized and may have other cases since 1992 that have affected it.
    Available in Word 6 and PDF format.

  • Bullock v. Huster. 532 N.W.2d 202, 209 Mich.App. 551,(Mich.App. 1995). Bullock is a Michigan case where there is standing to sue a court appointed attorney, guardian ad litem, appointed by the court to represent a minor child, for the tort of negligent representation. One must note that the aggrieved parent must make a complaint during the trial, and preserve the issue on record about the negligence of the court appointed attorney before the issue (preferably by written and filed objection) so as to avoid the possibility that the objection in open court will not appear in the court transcript.
    Available in Word 6 and PDF format.
  • TONI RAE GUARD, Individual v. JOHN JACKSON and CINDY J., WA SupCt, 1997 {cite as 1997.WA.1208 (http://www.versuslaw.com)]. - Noncustodial parent may sue for damages in wrongful death of illegitimate child. State law barring such suit where father had never supported the child overturned.
    Available in HTML format.
  • Kajtazi v. Kajtazi, United States District Court, Eastern District New York., 488 F. Supp. 15 [August 29, 1978]. - Federal court awarded damages for custodial interference and kidnapping.
    Available in TEXT format.
  • Pankratz v. Willis, 744 P.2d 1182 [Arizona, 1987], $125,000 damages were awarded to father for intentional infliction of emotional distress resulting from parental kidnapping of children by wife, supported by her parents.
    Available in TEXT format.